qsearch
¶
Submodules¶
qsearch.advanced_unitaries
qsearch.assemblers
qsearch.backends
qsearch.checkpoints
qsearch.comparison
qsearch.compiler
qsearch.defaults
qsearch.evaluation
qsearch.gates
qsearch.gatesets
qsearch.heuristics
qsearch.integrations
qsearch.leap_compiler
qsearch.logging
qsearch.multistart_solvers
qsearch.objectives
qsearch.options
qsearch.parallelizers
qsearch.persistent_aposmm
qsearch.post_processing
qsearch.project
qsearch.solvers
qsearch.unitaries
qsearch.utils
Package Contents¶
Classes¶
This class manages options that are passed between various Qsearch objects. 

This class defines the pattern for compilers that convert a unitary matrix to a circuit that implements that matrix. 

This Compiler uses an A* search strategy to synthesize a unitary, as described in the paper Towards Optimal Topology Aware Quantum Circuit Synthesis. 

This class shows the framework for working with quantum gates in Qsearch. 

Represents an identity gate of any number of qudits of any size. 

Represents a parameterized X rotation on one qubit. 

Represents a parameterized Y rotation on one qubit. 

Represents a parameterized Z rotation on one qubit. 

Represents a sqrt(X) rotation on one qubit, which is equivalent to XGate() with a paramter of pi/2, up to an overall phase. 

Represents an arbitrary parameterized singlequbit gate, decomposed into 3 parameterized Z gates separated by X(PI/2) gates. 

Represents a partially parameterized single qubit gate, equivalent to ZXZXZ but without the first Z gate. This is useful because that first Z gate can commute through the control of a CNOT, thereby reducing the number of parameters we need to solve for. 

Represents an arbitrary parameterized single qubit gate, parameterized in the same way as IBM's U3 gate. 

Represents a parameterized single qubit gate, parameterized in the same way as IBM's U2 gate. 

Represents an parameterized single qubit gate, parameterized in the same way as IBM's U1 gate. 

This gate represents an arbitrary parameterized singlequtrit gate. 

Represents the constant twoqutrit gate CSUM 

Represents the constant twoqutrit gate CPI. 

Represents the constant twoqutrit gate CPI with phase differences. 

Represents the constant twoqubit gate CNOT. 

Represents the constant twoqubit gate ControlledZ. 

Represents the constant twoqubit gate ISwap. 

Represents the constant twoqubit gate XX(pi/2). 

Represents the twoqubit gate CNOT, but between two qubits that are not necessarily next to each other. 

Represents an arbitrary constant gate, defined by the unitary passed to the initializer. 

Represents a constant gate, based on the Gate passed to its initializer, but upgraded to act on qudits of a larger size. 

Represents an arbitrary controlled gate, defined by the unitary passed to the initializer. 

Represents the sqrt(CNOT) gate. Two sqrt(CNOT) gates in a row will form a CNOT gate. 

Represents the Kronecker product of a list of gates. This is equivalent to performing those gate in parallel in a quantum circuit. 

Represents a matrix product of Gates. This is equivalent to performing those gates sequentially in a quantum circuit. 

The project class wraps most of the functionality of Qsearch as intended to help manage working with Qsearch. 
Attributes¶
 class qsearch.Options(defaults={}, smart_defaults={}, **xtraargs)¶
This class manages options that are passed between various Qsearch objects.
 filtered(self, *names)¶
Returns an Options object with only parameters in the specified list names.
 __getitem__(self, name)¶
 __delitem__(self, name)¶
 __getattr__(self, name)¶
 __setattr__(self, name, value)¶
Implement setattr(self, name, value).
 __contains__(self, name)¶
 manually_entered(self, *names, location='dict', operator='all')¶
 empty_copy(self)¶
Create an Options object with the same defaults but without any specific values.
 copy(self)¶
Create a full copy of an Options object.
 __copy__(self)¶
 updated(self, other=None, **xtraargs)¶
Return a new Options object that is a copy of this object, updated with the contents of other and xtraargs.
 update(self, other=None, **xtraargs)¶
Mutate the current Options object with the contents of other and xtraargs.
 _update_dict(self, otherdict)¶
 set_defaults(self, **args)¶
Set default values for this Options object.
If an Options object is queried for a value, and it does not contain it, it will check its defaults list before throwing an error.
 set_smart_defaults(self, **args)¶
Set smart_defaults values for this Options object.
If an Options object is queried for a value, and it does not contain it, it will check its smart_defaults list before throwing an error. If it does find a function in smart_defaults, it calls that function, passing itself as the argument, and returns the return value of that function, caching it for next time.
 make_required(self, *names)¶
Marking names as required will cause the Options object to throw an error if it does not contain it, even if it has defaults or smart_defaults defined.
 remove_defaults(self, *names)¶
Removes the defaults for the specified names.
 remove_smart_defaults(self, *names)¶
Removes the smart_defaults for the specified names.
 generate_cache(self)¶
Caches valuesa for all functions in smart_defaults.
 save(self, filepath=None)¶
Saves the Options object to a file, or to a returned tuple.
 load(self, filepath_or_tuple, strict=False)¶
Loads the Options object from a file or tuple.
If strict is left as False, the Options object will attempt to gracefully handle errors when loading its contents, relying on its ability to fallback to defaults or smart_defaults if those are able to load successfully.
If strict is set to True, the Options object will throw an error upon any error while loading.
 __getstate__(self)¶
 __setstate__(self, state)¶
 qsearch.standard_defaults¶
 qsearch.standard_smart_defaults¶
 class qsearch.Compiler(options=Options())¶
This class defines the pattern for compilers that convert a unitary matrix to a circuit that implements that matrix.
 abstract compile(self, options)¶
 class qsearch.SearchCompiler(options=Options())¶
Bases:
Compiler
This Compiler uses an A* search strategy to synthesize a unitary, as described in the paper Towards Optimal Topology Aware Quantum Circuit Synthesis.
 Options:
target (required) : The unitary matrix to be synthesized, in the form of a numpy ndarray with dtype=”complex128”. gateset : The Gateset used for synthesis. weight_limit : A limit on the maximum weight for circuits to be expanded for further searching. See gatesets.py for more information. The default is None for unlimited. heuristic : A heuristic used to order the search tree. See heuristics.py for more information. solver : A Solver used for optimizing the parameters in parameterized circuits generated by the search tree. parallelizer : A Parallelizer used for solving multiple parameterized circuits in parallel. beams : The number of nodes to pop from the search tree at a time. The default value of 1 will create enough branches to maximize utilization of your CPU. objective : An Objective used for scoring the quality of a parameterization for both synthesis and search. timeout : An uper limit on the amount of time the compiler will spend trying to synthesize a circuit. The default is float(‘inf’), for unlimited. checkpoint : The compiler will use this Checkpoint to save intermediate state, and will resume from this Checkpoint if there was an existing state. logger : A qsearch.logging.Logger that will be used for logging the synthesis process.
 Parameters
options – See class level documentation for the options SearchCompiler uses
 compile(self, options=Options())¶
 Parameters
options – See class level documentation for the options SearchCompiler uses
 qsearch.native_from_object¶
 class qsearch.Gate¶
This class shows the framework for working with quantum gates in Qsearch.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 abstract matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 abstract assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 __hash__(self)¶
Return hash(self).
 copy(self)¶
 _parts(self)¶
 __copy__(self)¶
 __deepcopy__(self, memo)¶
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 validate_structure(self)¶
 class qsearch.IdentityGate(qudits=1, d=2)¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents an identity gate of any number of qudits of any size.
 Parameters
qudits – The number of qudits represented by this identity.
d – The size of qudits represented by this identity (2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.XGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents a parameterized X rotation on one qubit.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.YGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents a parameterized Y rotation on one qubit.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.ZGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents a parameterized Z rotation on one qubit.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.SXGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents a sqrt(X) rotation on one qubit, which is equivalent to XGate() with a paramter of pi/2, up to an overall phase.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.ZXZXZGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents an arbitrary parameterized singlequbit gate, decomposed into 3 parameterized Z gates separated by X(PI/2) gates.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.XZXZGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents a partially parameterized single qubit gate, equivalent to ZXZXZ but without the first Z gate. This is useful because that first Z gate can commute through the control of a CNOT, thereby reducing the number of parameters we need to solve for.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.U3Gate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents an arbitrary parameterized single qubit gate, parameterized in the same way as IBM’s U3 gate.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.U2Gate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents a parameterized single qubit gate, parameterized in the same way as IBM’s U2 gate.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.U1Gate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents an parameterized single qubit gate, parameterized in the same way as IBM’s U1 gate.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.SingleQutritGate¶
Bases:
Gate
This gate represents an arbitrary parameterized singlequtrit gate.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.CSUMGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the constant twoqutrit gate CSUM
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 _csum¶
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.CPIGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the constant twoqutrit gate CPI.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 _cpi¶
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.CPIPhaseGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the constant twoqutrit gate CPI with phase differences.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.CNOTGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the constant twoqubit gate CNOT.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 _cnot¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.CZGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the constant twoqubit gate ControlledZ.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 _gate¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.ISwapGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the constant twoqubit gate ISwap.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 _gate¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.XXGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the constant twoqubit gate XX(pi/2).
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 _gate¶
 __eq__(self, other)¶
Return self==value.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.NonadjacentCNOTGate(qudits, control, target)¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the twoqubit gate CNOT, but between two qubits that are not necessarily next to each other.
 Parameters
qudits – The total number of qubits that a unitary of the size returned by this gate would represent. For this gate, usually this is the total number of qubits in the larger circuit.
control – The index of the control qubit, relative to the 0th qubit that would be affected by the unitary returned by this gate.
target – The index of the target qubit, relative to the 0th qubit that would be affected by the unitary returned by this gate.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 validate_structure(self)¶
 class qsearch.UGate(U, d=2, gatename='CUSTOM', gateparams=(), gateindices=None)¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents an arbitrary constant gate, defined by the unitary passed to the initializer.
 Parameters
U – The unitary for the operation that this gate represents, as a numpy ndarray with datatype=”complex128”.
d – The size of qudits for the operation that this gate represents. The default is 2, for qubits.
gatename – A name for this gate, which will get passed to the Assembler at assembly time.
gateparams – A tuple of parameters that will get passed to the Assembler at assembly time.
gateindices – A tuple of indices for the qubits that this gate acts on, which will get passed to the Assembler at assembly time. This overrides the default behavior, which is to return a tuple of all the indices starting with the one passed in assemble(v, i), and ending at i+self.qudits
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.UpgradedConstantGate(other, df=3)¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents a constant gate, based on the Gate passed to its initializer, but upgraded to act on qudits of a larger size.
 Parameters
other – A Gate of a lower qudit size.
df – The final, upgraded qudit size. The default is 3, for upgrading gates from qubits to qutrits.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.CUGate(U, gatename='Name', gateparams=(), flipped=False)¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents an arbitrary controlled gate, defined by the unitary passed to the initializer.
 Parameters
U – The unitary to form the controlledunitary gate, in the form of a numpy ndarray with dtype=”complex128”
gatename – A name for this controlled gate which will get passed to the Assembler at assembly time.
gateparams – A tuple of parameters that will get passed to the Assembler at assembly time.
flipped – A boolean flag, which if set to true, will flip the direction of the gate. The default direction is for the control qubit to be the lower indexed qubit.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.CNOTRootGate¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the sqrt(CNOT) gate. Two sqrt(CNOT) gates in a row will form a CNOT gate.
Gates must set the following variables in __init__
self.num_inputs : The number of parameters needed to generate a unitary. This can be 0. self.qudits : The number of qudits acted on by a unitary of the size generated by the gate. For example, this would be 1 for U3, 2 for CNOT.
 _cnr¶
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 class qsearch.KroneckerGate(*subgates)¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents the Kronecker product of a list of gates. This is equivalent to performing those gate in parallel in a quantum circuit.
 Parameters
*subgates – An sequence of Gates. KroneckerGate will return the kronecker product of the unitaries returned by those Gates.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 appending(self, gate)¶
Returns a new KroneckerGate with the new gate added to the list.
 Parameters
gate – A Gate to be added to the end of the list of gates in the new KroneckerGate.
 _parts(self)¶
 __deepcopy__(self, memo)¶
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 validate_structure(self)¶
 class qsearch.ProductGate(*subgates)¶
Bases:
Gate
Represents a matrix product of Gates. This is equivalent to performing those gates sequentially in a quantum circuit.
 Parameters
subgates – A list of Gates to be multiplied together. ProductGate returns the matrix product of the unitaries returned by those Gates.
 matrix(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix using the given vector of input parameters. For a constant gate, v will be empty.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A unitary matrix with dtype=”complex128”, equal in size to d**self.qudits, where d is the intended qudit size (d is 2 for qubits, 3 for qutrits, etc.)
 Return type
np.ndarray
 mat_jac(self, v)¶
Generates a matrix and the jacobian(s) using the given vector of input parameters.
It is not required to implement mat_jac for constant gates, nor is it required when using gradientfree Solvers.
The jacobian matrices will be complex valued, and should be the elementwise partial derivative with respect to each of the parameters. There should be self.num_inputs matrices in the array, with the ith entry being the partial derivative with respect to v[i]. See U3Gate for an example implementation.
 Parameters
v – A numpy array of real floating point numbers, ranging from 0 to 2*PI. Its size is equal to self.num_inputs
 Returns
A tuple of the same unitary that would be returned by matrix(v), and an array of Jacobian matrices.
 Return type
tuple
 assemble(self, v, i=0)¶
Generates an array of tuples as an intermediate format before being processed by an Assembler for conversion to other circuit formats.
 Parameters
v – The same numpy array of real floating point numbers that might be passed to matrix(v).
i – The index of the lowestindexed qubit that the unitary generated by the gate acts on.
 Returns
A list of tuples following the format described above.
 Return type
list
The format of the tuples returned looks like:
(“gate”, gatename, (*gateparameters), (*gateindices))
Where gatename corresponds to a gate that an Assembler will recognize, gateparameters corresponds to the parameters for the specified gate (usually but not always calculated from v), and gateindices corresponds to the qubit indices that the gate acts on (usually but not always calculated from i).
You can also have tuples of the form (“block”, *tuples) Where tuples is an array of tuples in this same format.
For some helpful examples, look at U3Gate, XZXZGate, CNOTGate, and NonadjacentCNOTGate.
 appending(self, *gates)¶
Returns a new ProductGate with the new gates appended to the end.
 Parameters
gates – A list of Gates to be appended.
 inserting(self, *gates, depth= 1)¶
Returns a new ProductGate with new gates inserted at some index depth.
 Parameters
gates – A list of Gates to be inserted.
depth – An index in the subgates of the ProductGate after which the new gates will be inserted. The default value of 1 will insert these gates at the begining of the ProductGate.
 __deepcopy__(self, memo)¶
 __repr__(self)¶
Return repr(self).
 validate_structure(self)¶
 class qsearch.Project(path, use_mpi=False)¶
The project class wraps most of the functionality of Qsearch as intended to help manage working with Qsearch.
 _save(self)¶
 _checkpoint_path(self, name)¶
 add_compilation(self, name, U, options=None, handle_existing=None, **extraargs)¶
Adds a unitary to be compiled.
 Parameters
name – A name for this unitary. Must be unique in this Project.
U – The unitary to be compiled, in the form of a numpy ndarray with dtype=”complex128”
handle_existing – A variable which defines how to behave if a compilation with the given name already exists. If it is set to “ignore”, it will simply return without doing anything. If it is set to “overwrite”, it will overwrite the previous entry. If it is set to the default of None, it will offer a warning asking the user to remove and readd the compilation.
options – The options passed to this function will be used only when this compilation is run.
extraargs – The extraargs passed to this function will be used only when this compilation is run.
 __setitem__(self, keyword, value)¶
 configure_compiler_override(self, keyword, value)¶
An unsafe method that allows the user to set global Project Options even if there is existing work.
 __getitem__(self, keyword)¶
 __delitem__(self, keyword)¶
 configure(self, **dictionary)¶
Adds multiple options to the global Project Options at once.
 reset(self, name=None)¶
Resets a Project, removing any work done but not the initial configurations.
 Parameters
name – Optionally specify a particular compilation by name to reset
 remove_compilation(self, name)¶
Removes a compilation from a Project.
 Parameters
name – The name of the compilation to remove
 clear(self, name=None)¶
Clears a Project, reverting it to a state similar to a newly created Project.
 Parameters
name – Optionally specify a particular compilation by name to clear
 __enter__(self)¶
 __exit__(self, exc_typ, exc_val, exc_tb)¶
 set_defaults(self, defaults=standard_defaults)¶
Updates the Project Options with the standard defaults from defaults.py, or a provided dictionary.
 set_smart_defaults(self, smart_defaults=standard_smart_defaults)¶
Updates the Project Options with the standard smart_defaults from defaults.py, or a provided dictionary
 run(self)¶
Runs all of the compilations in the Project.
 post_process(self, postprocessor, name=None, options=None, **xtraargs)¶
Postprocesses the specified compilation, or all compilations if name is None, using the specified postprocessor.
 Parameters
postprocessor – The qsearch.post_processing.PostProcessor to run on the compilation or project
name – Optionally specify a particular compilation by name to reset
options – Options to pass to the qsearch.post_processing.PostProcessor passed in postprocessor
extraargs – Extra arguments passed as options to the qsearch.post_processing.PostProcessor passed in postprocessor
 complete(self)¶
Returns a True if all compilations in the Project have finished and False otherwise.
 finish(self)¶
Called when done running compilations in order to end MPI tasks.
 status(self, name=None, logger=None)¶
Prints a status update on how much of a Project has finished running.
 Parameters
name – Optionally specify which compilation to check the status of
 property compilations(self)¶
The list of names corresponding to compilations on this Project.
 _compilation_status(self, name)¶
 _overall_status(self)¶
 get_result(self, name)¶
Get the result of a compilation.
 Parameters
name – The name of the compilation to get the result dictionary from
 Returns
The result dictionary for a finished compilation. Usually this contains the entries “structure”, a Gate, and “parameters”, an array of real number parameters.
 Return type
dict
 get_target(self, name)¶
Get the target unitary of a compilation.
 Parameters
name – The name of the compilation to get the target from
 Returns
The target unitary of the compilation
 Return type
np.ndarray
 get_time(self, name)¶
Get the runtime that it took to run a compilation.
 Parameters
name – The name of the compilation to get the runtime of
 Returns
The number of seconds the compilation took
 Return type
float
 get_options(self, name=None)¶
Get the qsearch.options.Options object from a compilation of project
 Parameters
name – Optionally pass the name of the compilation to get the qsearch.options.Options object from
 Returns
the requested options object
 Return type
 assemble(self, name, options=None, **xtraargs)¶
Assembles a compilation using the Assembler specified as assembler in the Options. :param name: The compilation to assemble :param options: Contains the qsearch.assemblers.Assembler to use in assembly
 Returns
The resulting assembled code
 Return type
str